Tuesday, August 18, 2020

“Not enough research on 5G, “ they say

Is it true that 5G is the big unknown? That there is no research we can build our risk assessment on? That we are facing a completely new type of technology never seen or heard of before? The short answer: no, it’s not true. We have a wealth of research we can build on. In the following a short overview. 


Of course, there is always room for more research and as our knowledge evolves, we come up with more refined approaches in exploring any given subject. In regard to 5G though, we do already know a lot. We have used the frequency ranges the new technology will use for a long time and know how they interact with the human body. And whilst 5G is starting to be  rolled out, the research efforts also continue. 


Research up to now 


Initially, 5G will use parts of the radiofrequency spectrum that has already been used for  other applications (e.g. the 700 MHz band and the 3.4-3.8 GHz band were used earlier for terrestrial broadcasting in different countries). 


Therefore, rather than starting anew, we have more than 60 years of research upon which to rely on. Starting back in the 1950’s with studies into military radar, TV and radio we now have more than 28,000 published scientific articles on the biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). These include 2,500 studies on mobile communications.[1]


Among these 2,500 studies, about 350 studies look at higher frequency bands in the range of 24 GHz, often called mmWaves[2], which is another part of the radiofrequency spectrum that 5G is going to be using.


In regard to radiofrequencies and technological use of it, the World Health Organization (WHO) has stated: 
“In the area of biological effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation approximately 25,000 articles have been published… Despite the feeling of some people that more research needs to be done, scientific knowledge in this area is now more extensive than for most chemicals.” [3]


Also, as the the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has stated recently[4] it “is important to note that higher frequencies does not mean higher or more intense exposure. Higher frequency radio waves are already used in security screening units at airports, police radar guns to check speed, remote sensors and in medicine and these uses have been thoroughly tested and found to have no negative impacts on human health".



As an international association of the wireless industry, the Mobile & Wireless Forum (MWF) has actively contributed to this research effort since its creation in 1998. A summary of these research activities can be found in the 2019 publication ’20 Years of Research’. The booklet gives a glimpse at the intensive ongoing research in this area and shows that the mobile and wireless industry continues to build on the solid foundation of scientific knowledge built over decades. 





MWF’s “20 Years of Research’ booklet: 




[2] Although strictly speaking mmWaves begin at 30GHz. 

[3] WHO “What are Electromagnetic Fields” Key Point 6: https://www.who.int/peh-emf/about/WhatisEMF/en/index1.html

Friday, July 17, 2020

Some facts about 5G – short, concise, in 4 languages

A lot of information circulates about 5G – from wild rumors and hear-say to detailed technical descriptions. But rare are short, concise and factual explanations about the most discussed aspects of the new generation of mobile communications.

In our continued effort to provide good and fact-checked information on wireless technologies, the MWF has started a series of short video clips that try to get to the point.

The first few videos are already online – most of them not only in English but also with German, Spanish and Portuguese translation:

What is 5G? 
5G and Coronavirus: Real Fake News
Expert Opinions on 5G Safety 

New videos will be added regularly to the MWF’s publication section: https://www.mwfai.org/publications.cfm?cat=Video

Or you can also directly follow the MWF’s Youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvwTMEqvWD3BWx2tmxYGDUA

Wednesday, June 17, 2020

ICNIRP’s new exposure guidelines for telecommunications – what changes?

After a thorough revision of the last 20 years of international research, the safety guidelines for electromagnetic field exposure (EMF) from EM emitting sources such as smartphones, mobile devices and network antennas remain largely unchanged and continue to provide protection for the whole population. While the 1998 guidelines already covered 5G frequencies, changes have been made in the frequencies above 6 GHz which are also relevant for 5G. 

In March 2020, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an independent body of experts, published a revision of their radio-frequency (RF) EMF exposure guidelines. These guidelines set exposure limits for non-ionizing radiation, including electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from Wi-Fi and telecommunications, which “provide protection against adverse health effects to humans under realistic exposure conditions” (1).
The review of the research carried out over the last 20 years in this area, confirmed that the guidelines first set in 1998 are still valid and protect the whole population, including more vulnerable groups such as children, pregnant women and the elderly, from established health risks. Changes have been made in the 2020 guidelines to the frequencies above 6 GHz which are also relevant for 5G.

We know parts of the community are concerned about the safety of 5G and we hope the updated guidelines will help put people at ease. The guidelines have been developed after a thorough review of all relevant scientific literature, scientific workshops and an extensive public consultation process. They provide protection against all scientifically substantiated adverse health effects due to EMF exposure in the 100 kHz to 300 GHz range,” said Dr Eric van Rongen, Chairman of ICNIRP, when the new guidelines were published.

ICNIRP was very clear on that there is ‘no evidence that RF-EMF causes such diseases as cancer’ and ‘no evidence that RF-EMF impairs health beyond effects that are due to established mechanisms of interaction’ (2). This statement fits with the large number of statements published over the past months by health authorities and national regulators around the world to stem the wild speculations and conspiracy theories circulated about 5G (3).

The only established hazards from RF EMF exposures relate to increases in local or whole-body temperature. The exposure limits are therefore set with substantial reduction factors to ensure that heating is within normal body ranges. This means that the limits are highly conservative and set in a way that they will remain protective unless they are exceeded by a substantial margin.

ICNIRP’s guidelines include different categories of exposure restrictions depending on the body region that is exposed to EMF – either the whole body or only parts of the body (Head, Trunk, Limbs), as well as on the duration of exposure – from instantaneous to long-term (24/7) exposure.

What has changed in the guidelines?

The guidelines were updated to also refine the limits for frequencies above 6 GHz which will be relevant for 5G. The main changes include:
  • the addition of a restriction for exposure to the whole body 
  • the addition of a restriction for brief (less than 6‐minute) exposures to small 
  • regions of the body (e.g. through mobile devices)
  • the reduction of the maximum exposure permitted over a small region of the 
  • body

Overall improvements to the guidelines include:
  • greater transparency to make the logic and scientific basis of the guidelines easier for the health protection community to engage with
  • additional means of assessing compliance with the guidelines; and
  • greater specification of how to assess complicated exposure scenarios

The SAR limits for mobile phones operating in frequencies below 6 GHz remain unchanged, only above 6 GHz a new absorbed power density limit is introduced that will apply to exposures close to the body (e.g. from mobile phones). The reason is that at higher frequencies the energy absorption occurs primarily at the body surface.

A timely publication 

The MWF welcomes the publication of the revised ICNIRP guidelines as they are based on an additional 20 years of research knowledge, improve scientific accuracy, accommodate changes in the frequencies above 6 GHz which are also relevant for 5G and still ensure a high level of protection for all.


Tuesday, May 26, 2020

5G conspiracy: Hundreds of articles now debunking it

The current public health threat of Covid-19 coincided with an underlying unease about the advent of 5G. As with every introduction of seemingly new technology, many people are worried about its safety. We say seemingly new because 5G is not fundamentally different from earlier mobile technologies in terms of its use of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). 5G operates with both existing as well as higher frequencies but that doesn’t mean that we don’t know anything about those frequencies and the safety of RF energy.

While 5G has been receiving a lot of attention on social media, the claims linking 5G to the spread of coronavirus are not only baseless - they have actually resulted in real harm. Mobile telecommunications companies have already had base stations or cell towers set on fire, and workers deploying the networks are being verbally abused and harassed. But experts have been very clear - the pandemic is not caused by 5G, as has been explained in 
an overwhelming number of statements from subject matter experts, scientists, health authorities and government representatives around the world. 

If you do have questions or doubts in regard to 5G, or would just like to better understand how such conspiracy theories can get traction in today’s modern world, there are a wealth of great articles to explore. Out of the several hundred articles published in March and April on this topic, we selected a few of the well-researched articles by respected media. 

If you wanted to have a good explanation about 5G and commonly discussed worries, have a look at these articles: 

If you would like to understand the origins and background to this particular conspiracy theory: 

If you want to know what official health agencies, government representatives, the World Health Organisation, the European Commission and others, have said about 5G and Covid19, have a look here: 

And two great podcasts exploring 5G and the recent excitement: 

Enjoy the reading and listening! 

We share even more articles via the MWF LinkedIn page and the @MWFupdates Twitter account. 

And if you do come across additional good sources and great explanations, do share with us. 

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Worry versus reality: Low EMF levels from telecom infrastructure

With the rollout of new network infrastructure, questions often arise about what this means for general levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the community. This was the case with earlier generations as it is now with 5G.

Several countries have published the results of national measurement and monitoring campaigns that assessed the current public exposure levels from telecommunications network infrastructure. Each of the reports have found that overall EMF levels remain far below the safety limits, with most results being around 1% of the international limits.

Ofcom, the United Kingdom Office of Communications, for example released a set of testing carried out in 2020 that found EMF levels around Britain to be between 0.0052% and 1.4960% of the ICNIRP reference levels for general public exposure. This is in line with the results obtained by French regulator ANFR as part of their yearly measurement program.

Will exposure levels rise with 5G? 

With the introduction of new technologies, there may be a small increase in the overall level of EMF due to the fact that new transmitters are active. In some countries, deployment of 5G may occur as part of closure of earlier wireless networks. Based on the transition from previous wireless technologies we can expect that the overall exposure levels will remain relatively constant and a small fraction of the international exposure guidelines (1).

For example, EMF measurements carried out by Australian network provider Telstra within their commercial 5G network with 5G devices found that EMF levels remained at around 1000 times below the safety limits and were similar in exposure levels to those of 3G, 4G or Wi-Fi.

This is consistent with the results from several studies (2) that have looked at measurements of base station RF emissions over time, and they found that irrespective of the country, the year and the mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, environmental levels have remained essentially constant despite the increasing number of base stations and deployment of additional mobile technologies.

Further information: 

Ofcom 2020 set of measurements:

ICNIRP RF EMF Guidelines 2020

5 surveys of 5G show EME levels well below safety limits:

(1) See 5G and EMF Explained: http://www.mwfai.org/docs/eng/2018_05_MWF_5G-EMF%20Explained%20final.pdf

(2) Rowley and Joyner, Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2012) 1 – 12., Joyner, Van Wyk and Rowley National Surveys of Radiofrequency Field Strengths from Radio Base Stations in Africa, Radiation Protection Dosimetry (2013) 1–12 and Rowley JT, Joyner KH, Observations from national Italian fixed radiofrequency monitoring network, Bioelectromagnetics. 2016 Feb;37(2):136-9.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

MWF Research Outcomes: In-Situ Measurement Methodology for 5G Base Stations

Deployment  of 5G networks is already well underway around the world and one of the areas that the MWF identified for further research work was the need for updated exposure assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance of the base stations. 5G base stations make use of beam forming and massive MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) to direct the signal where is needed rather than spreading the energy over a large angular beam. Beam forming and massive MIMO result in greater efficiency and better use of spectrum, but using traditional compliance assessment methodologies results in unrealistic overestimation of EMF exposure. This overestimation comes about since it assumes all the power of the base station is allocated within the same beam for several minutes.

This project therefore had two objectives:

  • to develop a measurement method to assess exposure from 5G NR base stations on-site; and 
  • to develop a measurement methodology applicable to assess exposure for massive MIMO products. 

Measurements being undertaken on a base station with a number of different services. The small 5G antennas are located in the middle of the head of the tower.

Measurements being undertaken on a base station with a number of different services. The small 5G antennas are located in the middle of the head of the tower. The MWF supported a research project at the University of Ghent to undertake the identified work. The results involve a five-step methodology consisting of: (1) a spectrum overview to identify the 5G NR channels; (2) the identification of the synchronization signal block (SSB) which contains the ‘always on’ signals; (3) the measurement of electric field strength per resource element of the SSB; (4) the measurement of the of the time-averaged instantaneous exposure level; and (5) the extrapolation of the resource element electric-field strength to the theoretical maximum level as well as the actual maximum level taking into account a variety of factors outlined in existing standards.

The methodology has now been presented to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards committee overseeing work on a new standard in this area and has been published in the journal IEEE Access.

The publication details are as follows: